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How Did the Universe Begin?
It is the beginning of all the other Great Mysteries, which makes it the most important of the Great Mysteries. The most important question that humans face is this, “How did life begin?” What exactly is the state of mind? What is dark matter, dark energy and gravity? – get out of it.
Author Ann Druyan, who is also the widow of scientist Carl Sagan, was once quoted as saying that “all other interests are driving him to this one.” “It’s important to me because I’m someone who despises the feeling of being in the dark.”
Although the theories being proposed to try to explain this puzzle are becoming more and more complex, scientists are still troubled by the prospect that some of the most important links in their chain of reasoning he may not be right.
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The standard version of the Big Bang Theory suggests that the universe came into existence during a period of inflation that began about 13.8 billion years ago. After a microsecond, it flew from a size smaller than an electron to almost its current size. This expansion was like a rapidly expanding balloon.
In the beginning, the only thing that could be found anywhere in the universe was energy. Some of this energy began to combine into particles, which began to organize themselves into light atoms such as hydrogen and helium. Eventually these atoms clumped together to form constellations, and later stars, the fiery furnaces from which all other elements were formed.
This is a representation of how the beginning of our universe is explained by scientists, and it is the one that is generally accepted. It is a powerful model that explains many things that scientists see when they look into space, such as the remarkable smoothness of space-time on large scales and the distribution of galaxies in different directions. the universe. Some of the things described by this model are as follows:
However, there are aspects of this situation that cause problems for many experts. To begin with, the idea that the universe went through a period of rapid inflation at the beginning of its history cannot be directly proven, and is based on the existence of a mysterious type of energy at the beginning of the universe that is not he disappeared.
According to Eric Agol, an astrophysicist at the University of Washington, “Price is the most powerful concept, yet we still do not understand what caused the rise in price or whether it is the correct explanation, but it works very well.”
Inflation is seen by some researchers as a heavy addition to the Big Bang model, however one that must be included so that the theory can be made to fit the data. There would be more additions after this.
According to Paul Steinhardt, a physicist at Princeton University, “We have also learned that there must be dark matter in the universe, and now we have discovered that there must be dark energy.” So the way the model works iteratively is that it says, “Okay, you take the Big Bang, you take inflation, you set it up to have the following properties, and then you add the number said of dark matter. and dark power.” There is no theory that can explain how these things are related.”
Steinhardt worries that cosmologists conduct their research more like engineers than scientists. If the test doesn’t fit the existing model, they can add a new part or modify the existing ones to make it fit. The components are not mutually exclusive, so the only requirement to include them is to ensure that the expectations are correct. It’s like trying to fix an old car with new parts for a different model of a modern car that came out later. Those parts will likely work in the short term, but in the long run, you’ll need a new car.
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The Infinite Universe
Steinhardt, a physicist at Harvard University, and Anna Ijjas, also a physicist at Harvard, have collaborated in recent years on a new approach that differs from the conventional Big Bang theory.
Their theory, which they call “bouncing cosmology,” suggests that the universe may not have been created just once, but instead several times, periodically it is going through a never-ending cycle of growing and growing. The “big bang” is replaced by the “big bang” in this theory, which not only overcomes many of the problems that beset the inflationary theory but also neatly links the time periods in which the universe which was shrinking and growing.
These two people assert that their ekpyrotic theory, also known as “cyclic,” can explain not only inflation but also other mysteries about the universe, such as dark matter, dark energy, and the reason why the universe appears to be expanding over time. increasing rate. [The 18 Greatest Unanswered Questions in the Field of Physics]
The theory of cosmology, which has its detractors, suggests that the universe is eternal and constantly renewing itself. Since it would mean that the stars in the sky, even the oldest ones, are like short-lived fireflies in the grand scheme of things, it is a possibility that is perhaps even more amazing than a universe with a definite beginning and end. .
According to Richard Massey, an astrophysicist at the California Institute of Technology, “I would like to hope that the efforts that society uses in science education bring us closer to fundamental truths, not just how to make useful tools.” “But I’m also afraid of finding out everything I know is wrong,” he said, “and I secretly hope I never do.” But I’m afraid to find out that everything I know is wrong.
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